iron ore liquefaction

Can Test of Iron Ore Fines by "Orinoco Surveying Group ...

Jan 22, 2018· ORINOCO SURVEYING GROUP is always working as a team to make sure that our client's cargo complies with IMSBC code. ... Can Test of Iron Ore Fines by "Orinoco Surveying Group" ... A "Can Test" can ...

Claims Report | Cargo Iron Ore Fines New Flame ...

tation of iron ore fines by sea from the Indian subcontinent has proved problematic in recent years when the moisture content has been too high at the time of loading. As a consequence the solid cargo has behaved as a liquid, sometimes with alarming results. This phenomenon is …

Stellar Daisy ship missing: Weird twist to vanished cargo ship

Apr 04, 2017· There have been several documented cases of ships suddenly sinking due to the liquefaction of iron ore and nickel ore during prolonged movement, such as bumping and shaking that occurs in bad weather.

India: Iron Ore Fines - Risk of Liquefaction

Oct 10, 2007· India: Iron Ore Fines - Risk of Liquefaction In the past few weeks three vessels have experienced serious cargo liquefaction problems after loading iron ore fines in Mangalore and Haldia. The iron ore fines were apparently loaded from open stockpiles which had been exposed to heavy rain.

Bulk cargo liquefaction - Norwegian Hull Club

The Lateritic Ore produced is clay like in appearance and reddish while Limonitic and Saprolitic ores are more yellow and granular. Lateritic nickel ore has long been known to liquefy with disastrous results. In 1988 the Mega Taurus was carrying ore from the Philippines when it …

Nickel ore liquefaction alert | Hellenic Shipping News ...

Nickel ore liquefaction alert in Marine Insurance P&I Club News 06/09/2019 In the nickel ore regions of Indonesia and the Philippines, the rainy season starts in June and lasts until November.

Iron ore (fines) - Cargo Handbook - the world's largest ...

Unprocessed ores - Iron ore fines and nickel ore There is a wide range of mineral cargoes that may liquefy, and they vary in their appearance and physical properties. One sub-group of cargoes has a particularly dangerous combination of risk factors, and accounts for a large proportion of recent casualties, near misses and contentious load port disputes during carriage of cargoes that may liquefy.

(PDF) Moisture content limit of iron ore fines for the ...

In 2013, over 500 million tonnes of Iron Ore Fines (IOF) were transported around the world using bulk carriers, more than any other unrefined mineral. Since the holds of bulk carriers have not been designed to carry liquid, if liquefaction of IOF or

Investigating the Susceptibility of Iron Ore to Liquefaction

Investigating the susceptibility of iron ore to liquefaction Leon A. v an Paassen 1 , Philip J. V ardon 1 , Arno Mulder 1 , Geert van de W eg 1 and Paul Jeffrey 2

Ores unprocessed - Cargo Handbook - the world's largest ...

Iron ore fines. Iron ore fines is a grey / rusty-red coloured fine sized material, shipped in bulk. Incidents with liquefying cargo on board seagoing vessels have been reported with iron ore fines loaded at the Indian ports of Mangalore and Paradip. Iron ore is a natural material that is mined all around the world.

Undrained monotonic triaxial loading behaviors of a type ...

Sep 09, 2018· Concerning the static liquefaction properties of an industrial cargo, i.e., iron ore fines (IOF), undrained monotonic behaviors of a type of IOF are revealed through conducting triaxial compression tests.

Moisture content limits of Iron Ore Fines to prevent ...

Iron Ore Fines (IOF) are a product of iron ore, commonly having a particle size less than 6.3 mm, which is transported around the world in bulk carriers. Since the holds of bulk carriers are not designed to carry liquid, if liquefaction of IOF or other minerals occurs, it can cause the vessel carrying the cargo to …

Nickel ore liquefaction alert | Hellenic Shipping News ...

Nickel ore liquefaction – recent Skuld experience We recently had a nickel ore liquefication issue on an entered vessel. She loaded nickel ore in the Philippines and two days later cargo ...

Investigating the Susceptibility of Iron Ore to Liquefaction

Liquefaction of cargo in a bulk carrier can cause the cargo to shift, which in turn can cause a ship to list and eventually can cause the ship to capsize. When liquefaction occurs, a material undergoes a transition from a solid to a liquid state and, in general, it is caused by the pore water pressure increasing above the total stress and overcoming the effects of cohesion (i.e. shear strength becomes negligible).

Liquefaction of Nickel Ore cargoes - UK P&I

Liquefaction of Nickel Ore cargoes. The ship had loaded Nickel ore from the Philippine Island of Surigao. Bulk carriers have been facing the issue of Liquefaction for a long time with the loss of some ships being attributed to liquefaction of Iron Ore exported from India. However, strong government measures seem to …

June 2018 Loss Prevention Liquefaction of Mineral Ores and ...

Fagerberg test procedure for iron ore fines’. The new schedule for iron ore fines, (a Group A cargo), is valid for iron ore cargoes containing both 10% or more of fine particles less than 1mm in diameter and 50% or more of particles less than 10mm in diameter. The content of goethite shall be less than 35%. The existing schedule for iron ore ...

CARGO LIQUEFACTION AND DANGERS TO SHIPS

Fig 2: Iron ore fines before and after liquefaction [12] 2.1 ACCIDENTS and TOTAL LOSS DUE TO CARGO LIQUEFACTION There have been a series of total losses and serious incidents caused by cargo liquefaction. This may result in serious stability problems as …

Co-liquefaction of Xilinguole lignite and lignin in ...

Kaneko et al. found that limonite iron ore (FeOOH) had high catalytic activity for DCL under a high pressure of H 2. Xu et al. found that a local raw iron ore had an extraordinarily active for promoting oil yield in the liquefaction of peat in supercritical water at 400 °C for 2 h.

Liquefaction of - GARD

Liquefaction of mineral ores, resulting in cargo shift and loss of stability, has been a major cause of marine casualties for many decades. Recent problems, already leading to several total losses this year, have primarily involved the carriage of unprocessed natural ores such as iron ore fines from India and nickel ore from Indonesia,

Problem of Cargo Liquefaction in the Maritime Industry

Aug 08, 2019· The cargoes which are more susceptible to liquefaction are iron ore fines and nickel ore even though any granular cargo may liquefy. Ship safety is affected by those cargoes when their form is changed during the voyage and the consequences may …

Focus: Cargoes subject to liquefaction - SAFETY4SEA

IMSBC Code Group A - Nickel Ore - Iron Ore Fines - Bauxite Cargo liquefaction may result in cargo shift and loss of stability; this has been the cause of a number of serious casualties during the last years and now liquefaction is being considered as a major hazard for bulk carriers. Liquefaction …

Bulk cargo liquefaction guidance - DNV GL

Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which a soil-like material is abruptly transformed from a solid dry state to an almost fluid state. Many common bulk cargoes, such as iron ore fines, nickel ore and various mineral concentrates, are examples of materials that may liquefy.

Intercargo: Liquefaction Caused Most Loss of Life from ...

Cargo failure and liquefaction continue to be a major concern for dry bulk shipping. These are believed to have caused 9 casualties with loss of 101 seafarers’ lives between 2009 and 2018, including 6 bulk carriers carrying nickel ore from Indonesia, 2 with laterite (clay) iron ore …

Ores unprocessed - Cargo Handbook - the world's largest ...

Iron ore fines is a grey / rusty-red coloured fine sized material, shipped in bulk. Incidents with liquefying cargo on board seagoing vessels have been reported with iron ore fines loaded at the Indian ports of Mangalore and Paradip.

(PDF) A review of the newly developed method used to ...

Transportable moisture limit test methods for other minerals such as bauxite, manganese ore and nickel ore, are still absent or out-dated. Further research into the cause of liquefaction of iron ore fines and other minerals, while being transported, is essential to prevent future loss of human life and assets.

The problem of Cargo Liquefaction on Bulk carriers ...

Sep 24, 2019· The known or suspected cause of these tragic losses has been liquefaction of cargo. In all but one case, the lost ship was carrying one of three cargoes: iron ore fines; nickel ore, or bauxite. Hui Long was carrying a cargo of fluorspar mineral.

(PDF) A review of the newly developed method used to ...

A REVIEW OF THE NEWLY DEVELOPED METHOD USED TO PREVENT LIQUEFACTION OF IRON ORE FINES ON BULK CARRIERS Michael C. Munro and Abbas Mohajerani School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.

Liquefaction - nautinst.org

The guideline aims to raise the awareness of the risks of liquefaction and describes mitigating actions to reduce these risks. Many common bulk cargoes, such as iron ore fines, nickel ore and various mineral concentrates, have the potential to transform into an almost fluid state, threatening the stability of …

MARITIME BULK CARGO LIQUEFACTION

cargoes, such as iron ore fines, nickel ore and various ... 2 WHAT IS BULK CARGO LIQUEFACTION? 5 2.1 LIQUEFACTION OF GRANULAR MATERIALS 5 2.2 LIQUEFACTION OF VERY FINE (NON-GRANULAR) MATERIALS 6 ...

Liquefaction Caused Large Ore Carrier Vanish in Minutes ...

Sep 01, 2019· Liquefaction is the phenomenon by which, under certain circumstances, a dry bulk cargo typically an ore, and often iron ore fines, behaves like a liquid. When the vessel rolls to one side the liquefied cargo moves to the lower side of the vessel, then lock in place as a mass, producing a list.

(PDF) Cargo liquefaction in bulk carriers: a review

found that iron ore was categorized as a group C cargo and not considered susceptible to liquefaction. As “iron ore” was not considered liquefiable they concluded that the

729 - 12/10 - Safe Shipment of Iron Ore Fines ...

As Members may be aware in 2009 two ships, the ‘Asian Forest’ and the ‘Black Rose’, capsized and sank following liquefaction of iron ore fines cargoes which they had loaded in the Indian ports of Mangalore and Paradip. There have been other incidents of liquefaction, particularly when loaded during or after the Indian monsoon season,...

Iron ore loading & causes of iron ore liquefaction during ...

There have been other incidents of liquefaction, particularly when iron ore fines have been loaded during or after the Indian monsoon season, resulting in ships becoming unstable and …

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